Nature and Ecology of Belgorod Region
The Geographical Position of Belgorod Region
The Belgorod region is located on the south-west and south slopes of the Middle Russian Hills in the basins of the Dnieper and the Don Rivers. The extent of the region from north to south is about 190 km, from west to east – about 270 km. The climate is temperate-continental, it is connected with mild winter with snow-fall and thaws and a long summer. The coldest month is January.
The Belgorod region belongs to the number of swallow regions of Russia. There are about 500 rivers and brooks. The most of the rivers are small for the space from 10 to 100 km. The main rivers are: the Oscol (220), the Vorskla (115), the Seversky Donest (110), the tichaya Sosna (105). There are about 1000 ponds and reservoirs. The largest of the reservoirs are the Stary Oskol’s tank and Belgorodsky’s tank.
Natural resources of the region
The main natural resource is black earth. The region is rich in mineral and non-mineral resources: iron ore, clay and sand. Two large iron-ore mining and dressing plants are the Stoilensky and Lebedinsky plants.
The State Nature Landscape Reserve "Belogorye" was founded in 1999. It unites such protected areas as “Vorskla forest” near Borisovka, “Yamskaya steppe” near Alexandrovka village,"Stenki-Izgorye" near Novy Oskol, “Lysye Gory” near Gubkin, "Ostrast'evy Yary". In 1999 the Vorskla River Forest in the Belgorod Region was added to the State Nature-Landscape Reserve “Belogorye”. In the early 1920s, the spot received the status of nature preserve, and the name of Vorskla Forest. It’s situated in the Borisovksy region. The Vorskla River Forest is one of oldest nature reserves in the former USSR, having also a long story of bird study. The majority of nests were built in trees, mainly in oaks; 383 nests were located in the crowns of the trees, 334 in hollows, 298 in undergrowth, and 166 on the ground. The Vorskla River Forest is an oak wood with some forest-steppe, having an area of 11.2 sq.km. The selection of nest places and the distribution of nests of the different bird species breeding in the reserve were studied within the different habitat types. The nature reserve protects different varieties of animals and plants. Some of its oaks are three hundred years old. They are interspersed with limes, elms, maples, ashes, birches and wild apple and pear trees - up to 500 varieties of trees, bushes and herbs. Wildlife is amazingly rich in this cherished forest -elk, roe deer, boarss, raccoons, foxess, badgers, martens, ferrets, hares, lizards, marsh turtles, snakes - and lots of birds. Yamskaya Steppe is known as a natural biological museum. It’s situated near Alexandrovka village, Gubkin region. Its area is 500 hectares of virgin steppe land. The basic riches of reserved territory are meadow steppes. Here about 500 kinds of plants. Special value is represented by the vegetation of the meadow steppes. Sedge, feather grass, thyme are found here. There are also endemic plants. The world of animals is represented by badgers, hares, mole-rats, pole cats. Now the destiny of Yamskaya Steppe is under threat,its territory is exposed to flooding because of Lebedinsky Industrial Complex. The Bekaryukovsky forest near Belgorod is another unique spot, with its relic pinewood growing in naked chalk, usually as forbidding to greenery as hard rock. Here, towering trees of a variety which has survived since the Tertiary period shine velvety-green against the dazzling white of the chalk slope. Voronezh University experts keep these exceptionally hardy trees under close observation. Relic chalk pines are to be seen in several other spots in the vicinity- near the villages Arkhangelskoye, Koshlakovo, Logovoye and Churaevo, the Stenki –Izgorye valley close to Novy Oskol, and in the neighbouring Voronezh Region. 91 species of birds,4 species of amphibians, 2 species of reptiles and 14 kinds of mammals are met in Stenki-Izgorye. Fill in the gaps using the following words: region, biological, represented, threat, meadow,
The Red Book of Belgorod region
In 2007 there was the main event to Belgorod region. It was the creation of Red Book of Belgorod region. The History of Red Book. From the beginning it was only a list of rare animals and plants. The founder of the first international Red Data Books was Piter Scott. He suggested to call this list as Red Data Book, because red colour was symbolized the signal of danger. The first publication of the international Book was in 1963. There were Red Books only for state persons and for scientists. Now there are several tomes of Red Book. They are situated in Switzerland in Morg. In 1978 Red Book of USSR was appeared. In 2001 Red Book of Russia was published. There were the first regional Red Books in 1980s. Our Red Book of Belgorod region was published in 2007. Red Book of the Belgorod Region is a document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi. It gives us information about rare flora and fauna in Belgorod Region. The Book has a title “Red”. Why? Red colour is a signal of the danger. That’s why our Book has a red binding. It was appeared on the 6th of March in 2007. It consists of 2 parts: animals and plants. It is a result of some years. About 700 species are situated there. It has a narration about reservations: “Belogorye”, the Forest Reserve on the Vorskla River, the Yamskaya Steppe, and the Borisovsky Reservation. The main aim of Red Book is inventariation and registration of rare species. According to the law Red Book must publish ones in 10 years. There are some kinds of Red Books: international, national, regional. Nature of the Belgorod region is modest. As for fauna of our region we can find some probably extinct, endangered, decreasing number, rare and rehabilited taxa and populations: brown bear, polecat, red deer, black stork, beetle-deer, Armenian bumble-bee, burbot, sheatfish, grey crane, eagle-owl, gopher. As for flora there are some rare flowers and trees: pine-tree on the chalky hills, snowdrop, water’s flower. Nature needs of our love, protection, our help. Red Book is one of the method to attract people’s attention.
Types of pollution
Nowadays the problems of environmental pollution are very actual. People are more concerned about the environment today, we use to discuss the most serious problems as pollution, which has many forms, the most actual problems for Belgorod region are air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, global warming and others. In the majority of cases it’s the result of man’s activity. It has happened because people preoccupied the natural resources. Moreover, Belgorodians use natural treasures irrationally, which is the most serious point to discuss.
Land, air, water are important for flowers, trees, animals, birds, fish and people. On the territory of our region we can see acid rains, hurricanes, town pours and the climate changes. There are a lot of industrial enterprises in region. The development of industrial enterprises promotes not only the town’s growth and improving the town’s dwellers living standard, but also makes worse the ecological situation. The amount of harmful discharges from the building plants, chemical industry and road transport is increasing day from day.
Of course, not only the industrial enterprises pollute the environment on our region such as the Cement Plant, The Canery, The Sugar producing Plant, but our people also do it. Instead the natural relief’s forms appear the artificial ones. For example, the artificial forests, quarries, roads’ embankments, clearings and the saving zones of the electrical lines, garage projects. You can see a lot of garbage’s scrambles along the roads, in the forests and parks, near the house, kitchen – gardens and graveyards. Some people burn their garbage. The smoke from such fires comes into the air and we breathe it.
There is the detour road in Belgorod; most of cars go through the center of the town. That’s why our town became more noisy and dusty. As the population of large cities continues to grow, pollution problems are becoming worse as the air around us is polluted, for example, when the coal is burnt, gases and smokes are produced, it makes the air dirty and unpleasant. The air in big cities is polluted by traffic and industry, but the most dangerous pollutions is led by cars, as even small amounts can affect the brain and nervous system of people. The number of cars and lorries is growing all the time. On the one hand, they bring mobility, but on the other hand, they need more expensive roads, which often ruin the countryside. . Every year the world’s industries pollute the atmosphere with 1 million tons of dust and other substances. Some factories release harmful substances all the time as the result of removing wastes from the factory, while others produce little or no pollution, but can cause huge problems when there is an accident. Air pollution can often cause lung diseases like pneumonia or bronchitis. Water pollution has become a serious problem because factories also pour poisonous wastes into streams and rivers. Farming can also cost water pollution, as the chemicals are used by the farmer to protect crops against pests, weeds and disease sometimes get into rivers and kill fish. Oil pollution (to be) like a recurring nightmare. Sea birds like gulls are the most common victims, they are covered in a thick black coating of oil unable to fly or feed themselves. Our land also is polluted because of our activity, some types of land pollutions are just unpleasant to look. Others can be dangerous for people and animals. Land pollution is just something we can all help to prevent by not leaving rubbish in the streets or in the countryside. Noise pollution is all around us, whenever we live, and we don’t notice it all the time. But people living airports suffer from the noise of larger and powerful jet airliners taking off and landing. Loud noise can make people ill. Those, who are exposed to loud noises all the time become very nervous and upset. Moreover, they run a risk of going deaf. The most alarming form of pollution is nuclear pollution. Accidents at nuclear power stations cause dangerous health problems, as the waste products can last hundreds of years.
Actual problems of water
There some rivers in our region. These rivers are the sources of water for the industrial enterprises. And water for people’s need (for drinking, cooking and washing) come from the underground water layers. But the quality of this water is not very good. Firstly, the water in our region is very hard, because it contains a lot of magnesium and calcium salt. Secondly, dust from town’s streets, squares and plant’s territories, chemicals from the fields and people’s garbage wash away and discharge to the rivers.
Not only town’s enterprises pollute our rives, forests, parks, but town’s dwellers do it too. People wash their cars on the banks of the rivers. They very often forget to clean the place after a picnic. We can see many plastic and glass bottles, cans and tix boxes, pieces of paper, plastic packets in the rivers on its banks. All these things pollute the rivers and their banks. We must teach ourselves and our children to save the natural resources of our region.