Halloween

Материал из Letopisi.Ru — «Время вернуться домой»
Перейти к: навигация, поиск

Содержание

INTRODUCTION

Halloween is an annual celebration, but just what is it actually a celebration of? And how did this peculiar custom originate? Is it, as some claim, a kind of demon worship? Or is it just a harmless vestige of some ancient pagan ritual? The word itself, "Halloween," actually has its origins in the Catholic Church. It comes from a contracted corruption of All Hallows Eve. November 1, "All Hollows Day" (or "All Saints Day"), is a Catholic day of observance in honor of saints. But, in the 5th century BC, in Celtic Ireland, summer officially ended on October 31. The holiday was called Samhain (sow-en), the Celtic New year. One story says that, on that day, the disembodied spirits of all those who had died throughout the preceding year would come back in search of living bodies to possess for the next year. It was believed to be their only hope for the afterlife. The Celts believed all laws of space and time were suspended during this time, allowing the spirit world to intermingle with the living. Naturally, the still-living did not want to be possessed. So on the night of October 31, villagers would extinguish the fires in their homes, to make them cold and undesirable. They would then dress up in all manner of ghoulish costumes and noisily paraded around the neighborhood, being as destructive as possible in order to frighten away spirits looking for bodies to possess. Probably a better explanation of why the Celts extinguished their fires was not to discourage spirit possession, but so that all the Celtic tribes could relight their fires from a common source, the Druidic fire that was kept burning in the Middle of Ireland, at Usinach. Some accounts tell of how the Celts would burn someone at the stake who was thought to have already been possessed, as sort of a lesson to the spirits. Other accounts of Celtic history debunk these stories as myth. The Romans adopted the Celtic practices as their own. But in the first century AD, Samhain was assimilated into celebrations of some of the other Roman traditions that took place in October, such as their day to honor Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruit and trees. The symbol of Pomona is the apple, which might explain the origin of our modern tradition of bobbing for apples on Halloween. The thrust of the practices also changed over time to become more ritualized. As belief in spirit possession waned, the practice of dressing up like hobgoblins, ghosts, and witches took on a more ceremonial role. The custom of Halloween was brought to America in the 1840's by Irish immigrants fleeing their country's potato famine. At that time, the favorite pranks in New England included tipping over outhouses and unhinging fence gates.


ORIGINS

The origin of Halloween dates back 2000 years ago to the Celtic celebration of the dead. A Celtic festival was held on November 1, the first day of the celtic New Year, honoring the Samhain, the Lord of the Dead. Celtic ritual believed that the souls of the dead returned on the evening before November 1. The celebration included burning sacrifices and costumes. These early events began as both a celebration of the harvest and an honoring of dead ancestors.

Halloween spread throughout Europe in the seventh century. It began with "All Hallows Eve", the "Night of the Dead". It is immediately followed by "All Souls Day", a christian holy day.

The first lighted fruit was really carved out of gourds and turnips. European custom also included carving scary faces into the gourds and placing embers inside to light them. This was believed to ward of evil spirits, especially spirits who roamed the streets and countryside during All Hallows Eve.

The Irish brought the tradition of carving turnips and even potatoes with them to America. They quickly discovered that pumpkins were bigger and easier to carve.

Do you know?!? Americans spend over $14 billion on costumes, decorations, party supplies and other Halloween paraphernalia!!


WICKER MAN

During the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain, from which Halloween was derived, Druids burned huge sacrificial wooden effigies known as wicker men atop sacred hilltop sites. The wicker men were sometimes filled with animals, prisoners of war, criminals, and other sacrifices to Druid deities.

SAMHAIN

Many of the ancient peoples of Europe marked the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter by celebrating a holiday in late autumn. The most important of these holidays to influence later Halloween customs was Samhain, a holiday observed by the ancient Celts, a tribal people who inhabited most of Western and Central Europe in the first millennium BC. Among the Celts, Samhain marked the end of one year and the beginning of the next. It was one of four Celtic holidays linked to important transitions in the annual cycle of seasons. Samhain began at sundown on October 31 and extended into the following day. According to the Celtic pagan religion, known as Druidism, the spirits of those who had died in the preceding year roamed the earth on Samhain evening. The Celts sought to ward off these spirits with offerings of food and drink. The Celts also built bonfires at sacred hilltop sites and performed rituals, often involving human and animal sacrifices, to honor Druid deities. By the end of the 1st century AD, the Roman Empire had conquered most of the Celtic lands (see Rome, History of). In the process of incorporating the Celts into their empire, the Romans adapted and absorbed some Celtic traditions as part of their own pagan and Catholic religious observances. In Britain, Romans blended local Samhain customs with their own pagan harvest festival honoring Pomona, goddess of fruit trees. Some scholars have suggested that the game of bobbing for apples derives from this Roman association of the holiday with fruit. Pure Celtic influences lingered longer on the western fringes of Europe, especially in areas that were never brought firmly under Roman control, such as Ireland, Scotland, and the Brittany region of northwestern France. In these areas, Samhain was abandoned only when the local people converted to Christianity during the early Middle Ages, a period that lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. The Roman Catholic Church often incorporated modified versions of older religious traditions in order to win converts. For example, Pope Gregory IV sought to replace Samhain with All Saints’ Day in 835. All Souls’ Day, closer in spirit to Samhain and modern Halloween, was first instituted at a French monastery in 998 and quickly spread throughout Europe. Folk observances linked to these Christian holidays, including Halloween, thus preserved many of the ancient Celtic customs associated with Samhain. Halloween traditions thought to be incompatible with Christianity often became linked with Christian folk beliefs about evil spirits. Although such superstitions varied a great deal from place to place, many of the supernatural beings now associated with Halloween became fixed in the popular imagination during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance (14th to 17th century). In British folklore, small magical beings known as fairies became associated with Halloween mischief. The jack-o’-lantern, originally carved from a large turnip rather than a pumpkin, originated in medieval Scotland. Various methods of predicting the future, especially concerning matters of romance and marriage, were also prominent features of Halloween throughout the British Isles. Between the 15th and 17th centuries, Europe was seized by a hysterical fear of witches, leading to the persecution of thousands of innocent women. Witches were thought to ride flying brooms and to assume the form of black cats. These images of witches soon joined other European superstitions as symbols of Halloween.

CONTEMPORARY CUSTOMS IN THE U.S.A

Are you thinking about hosting a Halloween party? Set the scene with some tasty and fun foods using the best of fall produce, with a spooky twist. These recipes are all delicious variations on traditional fall foods, with some Halloween flavor thrown in for fun. Of course, all of these recipes taste delicious, no matter how gross they look. I like serving appetizers as the whole meal for parties. Your guests have more choices and can sample foods they might not otherwise try. Finger foods also encourage people to mingle, laugh, and talk as they eat, making a more fluid party. To create a haunting atmosphere, light your house with candles only, set up small portable fans to gently blow around fake spider webs, and fill plastic gloves with ice, freeze, remove the plastic, and place in your punchbowl. In a darkened hallway, tape long lengths of black thread to the ceiling, hanging low enough to brush faces as people walk by. Make sure you have lots of spooky Halloween music on the CD, light a fire in the fireplace if it's cold outside (or even if it's not) and carve lots of pumpkins with your kids to display inside and out. And chaperoning parents of trick-or-treaters would appreciate a treat too. You’ll be the most popular stop on the block when you offer some great hors d’oeuvres (portable, of course), to warm up those cold bones. Use your imagination when displaying these wonderful treats. Use organic, untreated fall flowers to garnish platters, display scary masks around your dining room, and don't forget Halloween colored twinkle lights. And of course we can’t forget sweets! These homemade goodies may even have the kids forsaking their bags of treats! (yeah, right). Have a safe, happy and spooky Halloween! Children still go begging for treats. However, over the last few years, school, church and neighborhood parties are replacing the custom of trick or treating from house to house. More and more adults are also celebrating Halloween with masquerade parties in which they dress up like political and historical figures, or just plain old scary fellows from recent horror films like ghosts, vampires, goblins, Frankenstein, etc. Witches flying on broom sticks with black cats, skeletons, spiders and haunted houses are other symbols of Halloween. Another popular activity at Halloween parties is bobbing for apples. One person at a time must get an apple out of a tub of water without using his hands and only by sinking his or her face into the water and biting the apple. While children’s Halloween parties are generally held in private homes, many bars and nightclubs sponsor modified versions of such festivities for adults.The party may start or end with a Halloween costume parade, wherein those with the best or scariest costumes receive prizes. Telling scary stories or "ghost" stories while huddled together by candlelight or around a fire out¬side is one of the highlights of Halloween night. Any story will do, but it must be spoken in a low, tense voice and reach a startling climax, as does the following story told in Britain and in certain US east coast states.

TRICK-OR-TREATING

Файл:Trick or treat.jpg
TRICK-OR-TREATING

The custom of trick-or-treating is thought to have originated not with the Irish Celts, but with a ninth-century European custom called souling. On November 2, All Souls Day, early Christians would walk from village to village begging for "soul cakes," made out of square pieces of bread with currants. The more soul cakes the beggars would receive, the more prayers they would promise to say on behalf of the dead relatives of the donors. At the time, it was believed that the dead remained in limbo for a time after death, and that prayer, even by strangers, could expedite a soul's passage to heaven. Trick-or-treating is Halloween tradition, in which costumed children go from house to house soliciting candy or other treats from their neighbors. According to this custom, children greet each homeowner with the cry “Trick or Treat,” suggesting that some sort of prank will be played unless treats are provided. Formerly, trick-or-treaters vandalized the house if no treats were produced or if the treats met with their disapproval. Since the early 20th century, however, the threat of tricks has been largely ceremonial. Beginning in the 1970s, the practice of trick-or-treating went into a sharp decline after unsubstantiated rumors spread about homeowners distributing poisoned Halloween candy to children. Many parents also became concerned about their children wandering through the neighborhood after dark. Today, many parents accompany children when they go trick-or-treating. In some areas of the country, costume parties have replaced trick-or-treating as the favored form of Halloween entertainment.

SYMBOLS

Файл:Broom.gif Broomsticks

Witches and broomsticks go hand in hand. They have been associated for centuries. Often witches are depicted riding them across the night sky with a black cat on the end. A more reasonable explanation may be that Halloween festivities happened during the rainy season. Women used their brooms to vault over the puddles and large amounts of water. As well, during the Witch's Sabbath, they performed a jumping dance while straddling the broom, using it to vault higher. It was thought that the higher the jumps, the higher the crop growth because in ancient time, the broom was thought to symbolize fertility.

Файл:Phases.gif Moon

In mythology, the moon is thought of as a repository for souls. The ancient Greeks believed that the moon was the midway point for souls making the transition between realms. The moon has long been associated with death because of its cycles. Werewolves are said to be transformed by the moon during these cycles. Some astronomers believe jack-o-lantern carving was inspired by the rising, orange October moon. Full moons and moonlit nights are often described as settings for scary stories.

Orange & Black Colors

Both have ties to the occult and masses for the dead which were held in November. Unbleached beeswax candles are used in ceremonies and are orange in color. The color black ties in with the black cloths that were draped over ceremonial caskets (death). Orange is associated with fall harvests. Both colors compliment each other and allow for a color scheme that pops!

Scarecrows

Known by different names throughout the world, the scarecrow is commonly used as a means of scaring unwanted flying visitors away. Commonly they are dressed in ragged garb and mounted crucifix style to a pole or wooden stake. Though the origins are unknown, they are associated with Halloween and fall holidays in modern culture. Scarecrows have been rumored to be associated with the ancient ritual of human sacrifice for crop growth on Samhain, hence the crucifix style presentation.

JACK O’LANTERN

The jack-o’-lantern is the most common symbol of Halloween. The Jack-o-lantern custom probably comes from Irish folklore. As the tale is told, a man named Jack, who was notorious as a drunkard and trickster, tricked Satan into climbing a tree. Jack then carved an image of a cross in the tree's trunk, trapping the devil up the tree. Jack made a deal with the devil that, if he would never tempt him again, he would promise to let him down the tree. According to the folk tale, after Jack died, he was denied entrance to Heaven because of his evil ways, but he was also denied access to Hell because he had tricked the devil. Instead, the devil gave him a single ember to light his way through the frigid darkness. The ember was placed inside a hollowed-out turnip to keep it glowing longer. The Irish used turnips as their "Jack's lanterns" originally. But when the immigrants came to America, they found that pumpkins were far more plentiful than turnips. So the Jack-O-Lantern in America was a hollowed-out pumpkin, lit with an ember. So, although some cults may have adopted Halloween as their favorite "holiday," the day itself did not grow out of evil practices. It grew out of the rituals of Celts celebrating a new year, and out of Medieval prayer rituals of Europeans. And today, even many churches have Halloween parties or pumpkin carving events for the kids. After all, the day itself is only as evil as one cares to make it. Jack-o’-lantern, traditionally a hollowed-out pumpkin carved to resemble a grotesque face and illuminated by a candle placed inside. The jack-o’-lantern derives its name from a character in British folktales. According to these tales, the soul of a deceased person named Jack O’Lantern was barred from both heaven and hell and was condemned to wander the earth with his lantern. Orange and black, colors associated with pumpkins and darkness respectively, figure prominently in most Halloween decorations.According to legend, jack-o’-lanterns set on porches and windowsills. There is a very interesting story which is called JACK-of-the-TURNIP by Terry H Jones stolen from an old Irish legend Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation.

SUPERNATURAL BEINGS

Withes

Witches have long been a source of fascination for many. Witches are thought to be tellers of fortune and to cast spells, both good and bad. This frightened many because it was believed that supernatural powers were strongest on Halloween night. The implication of being a witch has greatly changed throughout the centuries. Thoughts of old wrinkled green skinned hags with grey stringy hair and a nose wart are what many think of. Others think of witchcraft and the negative propaganda associated with it. A more realistic view of the modern witch is a socially conscience individual who practices Wicca and is proud to be considered a Pagan. In the Wiccan religion, the word witch means wise one.


WEREWOLVES

Werewolves have been traced back to the origins of mankind. Are they evil creatures as in the modern folklore or simply shapeshifters ?. Werewolves are only second to vampires in terms of popularity. Perhaps, like vampires, belief in humans that turn into wild predatory (and sometimes, nocturnal) animals exists in all major world cultures. Many psychologists attribute this to the natural animal instinct that resides in the psyche of all men, an instinct that existed since the dawn of mankind.

Vampires

Dangerous, immortal and hellish, the vampire is the most feared monster and by far one of the most powerful. The Vampire subculture* (or Vampyre Scene) like other system of beliefs consists of people who have committed themselves to an ideology, maintain ethical tenets within a hierarchical system, participate in rituals specific to their clans and in which aesthetics holds a significant, often magical place of significance within the group; aesthetic being broadly defined as symbolism, style, language, religion, art, presentation of self, appearance, and other cultural expressions.

Ghosts

Ghosts are universal symbols for the departed. Skeletons and bones are symbols of death and the shortness of life. Samhain is the festival of the dead, so it seems fitting that ghosts and skeletons would be used. It was thought that on this night of the year, the dead roamed the earth freely in their passage to the hereafter While they can be beneficial, negative, or neutral, ghosts—the spirits of dead people—are often tragic. Ghosts often haunt a location or someone living, and they sometimes appear as a warning. Ghosts can also be invoked to help the living, sometimes with mixed results. In the late 19th century, the Paiute Indians of North America practiced a ghost dance, including trances, lasting five days. Believing it would stop the westward expansion of white settlers other tribes adopted the ghost dance. Just before their tragic 1890 battle with the U.S. cavalry at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, Sioux warriors performed the ceremony, and entered battle wearing ghost shirts to protect them against bullets. Nonetheless, they died by the score. Other western ghosts populate "ghost towns," once-thriving communities that have been abandoned by the living. Virginia City, Nevada; Silver City, Idaho; and St. Elmo, Colorado are famous towns where the inhabitants are all ghosts busily maintaining the traditions of a happier time.

GOBLINS

From their birthplace in France, these nasty, hideous cousins of gnomes have spread all over Europe. When they entered England in ancient times, the Druids called them Robin Goblins, from which the name "hobgoblin" derives. Goblins have no permanent home, living temporarily in old trees and under moss-covered rocks. Reported to be playful on occasion, goblins are nonetheless to be avoided. A goblin's smile can curdle blood, and its laugh can make milk turn sour. Goblins amuse themselves by hiding things, spilling food, and confusing travelers by changing signposts.

BAD OMENS

Файл:Blackcat.jpgBLACK CATS

The black cat has long been associated with witches. Many superstitions have evolved about cats. It was believed that witches could change into cats. Some people also believed that cats were the spirits of the dead. One of the best known superstitions is that of the black cat. If a black cat was to cross your path you would have to turn around and go back because many people believe if you continued bad luck would strike you. Cats have been considered by many to be spiritual animals. They have been worshiped in many societies and are thought to have the ability to sense good and bad spirits. Western superstitions would have us believed that black cats have special powers, that they can represent spirits or even incarnated humans, thereby linking black cats to occultism. On Easter and Shrove Tuesday during the Middle Ages, black cats were routinely hunted down and burned. Cats accused of being witches' familiars were generally burned alive. The color black is also commonly linked to the dark realm.

BATS

Large Halloween bonfires would encourage a large amount of mosquitoes to gather and bats could often be seen swooping above the bonfires. This begins the earliest known associations of bats with Halloween. Because they fly only at night and live in tombs and abandoned churches, bats are believed to be an omen of evil. They are commonly associated with witches and vampires. It is superstition that witches and vamps can take the form of a bat. The vampire bat is the only mammal that feeds on blood so it is no wonder they are linked to death and occult rituals.

SPIDERS

While many nature/earth centered cultures feel that the spider represents the weaving of life, in reference to Halloween, it represents dark, spooky places and haunted houses long forgotten.

OWLS

Large Halloween bonfires would encourage a large amount of mosquitoes to gather, causing owls and bats to come out. They could often be seen swooping above the bonfires. This begins the earliest known associations of owls with Halloween.Superstitions suggest that owls ate the souls of the dying by swooping to earth. Owl screeches and their glassy stare are an omen of death and disaster. The owl is scarcely seen during the day and is affiliated with night behaviors.

MAKE-UP & COSTUMES

Файл:250px-Trick or Treater.jpg Файл:230px-Ubu-monsters.jpg

Dressing in costume is one of the most popular Halloween customs, especially among children. Traditional costumes usually represent witches, ghosts, and other supernatural beings. However, costumes inspired by contemporary popular culture, such as politicians or movie characters, have become increasingly common in recent years. Adults often favor costumes with satirical or humorous overtones. Halloween is a time for all sorts of Make-Up. Here you will find Make-Up from A to Z. Pay special attention to our Character Theme Kits with full color instructions. You'll find latex masks, appliances, adhesives, creme makeup, fangs, blood, gore & more!

MASKS

A mask is a whole or partial cover for the face. The use of masks dates back to man's earliest history. Symbolic masks were devised to be worn during ceremonies of many ancient peoples. Druids wore masks on Halloween to ward off evil spirits, witches, goblins and ghosts. One of the most commonly recognized types of masks is the false face. It represents another person or creature and made usually of papier-mвchй or plastic. It is most commonly worn on such occasions as Halloween and Marti Gras.

EMS MAKEUP / SEVERE TRAUMA

Trauma make-up is its own art form. Used for serious business such as EMS/EMT training as well as for masquerade purposes, Graftobian's vast array of blood, gore and trauma make-ups is sure to impress. Our EMS Kit makes a great Haunted House kit too!

FACE PAINTING

Graftobian's Face Painting Make-Up selection includes our world famous Disguise Stix® Face Paint as well as dishes filled with the same easy-on, easy-off, mild cosmetic soap based formulation. Here you will find our other great face painting accessories.

COLOUR & GLITTER HAIRSPRAY

Festival Color and Glitter Hair Spray is made in Holland with old world quality. The coverage is unparalleled in the industry, the fluorescent shades are day glow in regular light and brilliant under Black Light. The Glitter sprays are simply fabulous

http://www.frightcatalog.com/Halloween-Masks/

PUBLIC HALLOWEEN FESTIVITIES

Attitudes toward Halloween varied widely among the various European groups that settled in North America. New England was initially settled by English Puritans, members of a strict Protestant sect that rejected Halloween as a Catholic and pagan holiday (see Puritanism). However, other British colonists successfully transplanted Halloween traditions in southern colonies such as Virginia and Maryland. Irish immigrants helped popularize Halloween traditions throughout the United States in the mid-19th century. As belief in many of the old superstitions waned during the late 19th century, Halloween was increasingly regarded as a children’s holiday. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, young people often observed Halloween by perpetrating minor acts of vandalism, such as overturning sheds or breaking windows. Beginning in the 1930s, Halloween mischief gradually transformed into the modern ritual of trick-or-treating. Eventually, Halloween treats were plentiful while tricks became rare. Nonetheless, the tradition of Halloween pranks still survives. Since the 1970s, Halloween celebrations have become increasingly popular among adults. The Halloween parade in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City features elaborate satirical costumes and drunken revelry. Especially popular among the local gay population, the Greenwich Village parade serves as a model for many other adult Halloween celebrations around the country. Similarly boisterous public Halloween festivities are celebrated in San Francisco, California; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Key West, Florida.

NEW YORK GREENWICH VILLAGE HALLOWEEN PARADE

This year marks the 33rd Annual New York's Village Halloween Parade. Started by a Greenwich Village mask maker and puppeteer in 1973, the Parade began as a walk from house to house in his neighborhood for his children and their friends. After the second year of this local promenade, Theater for the New City stepped in and produced the event on a larger scale as part of their City in the Streets program. That year the Parade went through many more streets in Greenwich Village and attracted larger participation because of the involvement of the Theater. After the third year, the Parade formed itself into a not-for-profit organization, discontinued its association with Theater for the New City and produced the Parade on its own. Today the Parade is the largest celebration of its kind in the world and has been picked by Festivals International as "The Best Event in the World" for October 31.After the 8th year, when the crowd had reached the size of 100,000 Celebration Artist and Producer Jeanne Fleming, a long-time participant in the Parade took over the event. She began working closely with the local Community Board, residents, merchants, schools, community centers and the Police to ensure a grass-roots, small "Village" aspect of the event, while at the same time preparing for its future growth. Now, 25 years later, the Parade draws more than 50,000 costumed participants and spectators estimated at 2 million.Originally drawing only a postage stamp sized article in the New York Times, now the Parade is covered by all media--local, national and worldwide.The Parade has won an Obie Award and been recognized by the Municipal Arts Society and Citylore for making a major contribution to the life and culture of New York City. In 1993 the Parade was awarded a major NEA Grant for Lifetime Achievement and in 1994 and 1998--it's 20th and 25th Anniversary Years-- it was awarded Tourism Grants from both the Office of the Mayor of the City of New York and the Office of the Manhattan Borough President in recognition of its economic and cultural contribution to New York City. Additionally, the Parade has been the subject of many books, scholarly dissertations, independent films and documentaries due to its position as an authentic "cultural event."In 1994 The Mayor of the City of New York issued a Proclamation honoring the Village Halloween Parade for 20 years of bringing everyone in the City together in a joyful and creative way and being a boon to the economic life of the City. The Proclamation concludes: "New York is the world's capital of creativity and entertainment. The Village Halloween Parade presents the single greatest opportunity for all New Yorkers to exhibit their creativity in an event that is one-of-a-kind, unique and memorable every year. New Yorkers of all ages love Halloween, and this delightful event enables them to enjoy it every year and join in with their own special contributions. The Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village is a true cultural treasure." In that same statement, the Mayor declared the week of October 24-31 to "HALLOWEEKTM in NYC in perpetuity."Perhaps our greatest honor came only 7 weeks after the tragic events of 9/11, when Mayor Rudolf Giuliani insisted that the Parade take place stating that it would be a healing event for New York. With the eyes of the world looking at us, we created a giant Phoenix puppet rising out of the ashes. Hundreds of millions of of viewers worldwide watched as the Parade provided tangible evidence that NYC was enduring, safe, surviving, and spirited in the face of great tragedy and hardship. In 2005 we paid tribute to New Orleans and invited all Katrina evacuees to join us in a Funeral Procession Tribute to the stricken city. Over 8,000 evacuees showed up for the Parade and Benefit.Our Mission Statement: New York's Village Halloween Parade is committed to the cultural and imaginative life of New York City and to the advancement of large-scale participatory events in the belief that such events, when artistically inspired, can play a major role in the resurrection and rejuvenation of the City's spirit, economy and the life of its people.The Village Halloween Parade plays an important part in the life of the City. It is the only Parade in the country that has at its heart an artistic base. It's generous spirit has nurtured hundreds of thousands of people who reach into their imaginations and take themselves physically out into public to perform and to celebrate. We believe public events of this sort give people the opportunity to claim the open spaces of their City for purposes other than work; to inhabit them with a sense of freedom and spontaneity; to play, thus renew their relationship to the environment. The Parade is a powerful event, for while it is happening, it animates all the senses--sight, sound, smell, taste, color and movement. The emotional response that it generates has a lasting effect on how the participants and those who either watch or hear about the event feel about the places and the people of New York.Fleeting as it may seem, the Annual Village Halloween Parade provides a subconsciously experienced time structure that lends a sense of durability, continuity and community to New York City life.



NEW ORLEANS…

The mission of the Hosts of Halloween is to provide funding for Project Lazarus, a home in New Orleans for men and women with AIDS, so that they may provide health care and support services for their residents. Project Lazarus, which provides direct AIDS services, is the sole beneficiary of all funds which are raised. HISTORY The first Halloween in New Orleans event was held in 1984, when a small group of 11 friends, called (G)Hosts decided to throw a costume-suggested party over Halloween weekend for their out-of-town friends. The Halloween Extravaganza was held at the long closed, Civic Disco Theater on Carondelet Street in downtown New Orleans. Entrance was by invitation only and required the use of the "admittance card" included in every invitation. The guest list was composed of guests of the 11 (G)Hosts, who underwrote the event and invited all guests. In 1985, Halloween in New Orleans officially became a tradition and annual event with Halloween II, again at the Civic Disco Theater. At the second and third event (in 1986), the dress was suggested as Costume or Black Tie and remained by Invitation Only. In 1987, Halloween IV, the event expanded to include 28 Hosts and a Friday night welcome party, the Saturday costume party and a Sunday good-bye brunch. This continued for Halloween V, and for both years, costumes became required (as they have been ever since) and admittance was still by invitation only. The modern day Halloween was born in 1989 when the event became a 4 day weekend, kicked-off by a Thursday night coat-and-tie dinner. 52 Hosts funded and organized Halloween VI, which was still by invitation only. Halloween VII - Halloween IX (1990 - 1992) continued the traditions of before and eventually grew to 137 Hosts. 1993 was the first big milestone with Halloween X. The organization had expanded to 177 Hosts and during 1993 received a City of New Orleans Proclamation from Mayor Sidney Bartholomew, a Certificate of Special Congressional Recognition from U.S. Congressman William Jefferson, and a Louisiana Legislature House of Representatives commendation from Speaker John A. Alario, Jr. All of this recognition was for the tremendous history Halloween had already built for service and volunteerism in support of Project Lazarus. In 1994, the Host Lounge Pass was born as a way to give an additional special benefit to the now 191 Hosts who funded and supported Halloween's in New Orleans. 1994 was also the first year that entrance was not restricted to Invited Guests only. Halloween's in New Orleans continued to grow in the late 1990s and several new milestones were met. 1995, the number of Hosts funding Halloween surpassed 200 to a total of 217. In 1996, Hosts reached 299 and the first Weekend Passes were sold. In 1997, Hosts finally reached their present day level at 324 Hosts and the Halloween website was first created. Halloween in New Orleans continued to grown at the turn of the Millennium and reached it's current day status as a first-class "circuit party", attracting guests from all over the U.S. and many foreign countries. It continues to be one of the most exciting parties in the country, as it maintains it's costume-mandatory rule for Saturday night. It is also one of the best values in the country, with open bar at all events over Halloween Weekend. Hurricane Katrina had a profound affect on Halloween's in New Orleans, as it did on much of the city. Many of our past and beloved venues were damaged to the point of still, as of this writing, remaining closed. Our local Patrons and Hosts still suffer in a city that is struggling to return to it's previous status as showing people one of the best times they've had anywhere. And yet, we have survived. Halloween 22, just 9 weeks after Katrina, had over 1,000 people show up for a "party in the streets" next to the W New Orleans Hotel. While small by traditional Halloween standards, it was both shocking and spirit-lifting in a city that had just opened for repopulation less than 2 weeks before. Halloween 23 returned to a weekend of events with 3 parties and total attendance approaching 2,500. What will Halloween 24 bring? We hope more Patrons and Hosts, growing total attendance and a weekend of Halloween revelry that returns to our past peak years of partying into the morning hours with thousands of your now close friends!

KEY WEST, FLORIDA…

During Fantasy Fest, party goers flock to Key West for 10 days of wild Mardi Gras style fun in the sun. The 10 day festival is filled with parades, street fairs, exotic costume parties, toga parties, body painting, and bead exchanging ala Mardi Gras style. Despite the estimated 70,000 party goers, there is a safe and friendly island vibe. Held at the end of October near Halloween, this annual event is the erotic carnival of the Florida Keys.

MISCHIEF (DEVIL’S) NIGHT

In some areas, October 30 (one day before Halloween) is called Mischief Night, and vandalism often reaches dangerous levels. In Detroit, Michigan, Mischief Night—known there as Devil’s Night—provided the occasion for waves of arson that sometimes destroyed whole city blocks during the 1970s and 1980s.

TRADITIONAL DISHES AT HALLOWEEN

Food is considered indispensable for the celebration. The foods offered in the memorial are different according to the wishes and social status of the deceased. Typical foods include: bread, fruits vegetables, and sweets.

Other delicacies available for the celebration are: sugar skulls (bought from the bakeries with the names of each on of the members of the family who are alive and of the deceased), candied fruit and pumpkins, tamales (corn meal with meat or raising wrapped in corn husk) and maize dough cakes, as well as enchiladas and chalupas (thicker corn tortillas with topings).

Beverages which are placed on the memorial include: water, coffee, beer, tequila, and atole (corn starch fruit flavored hot drink, a special drink made from corn meal.)

Depending on how elaborate the display is, it will show the status of the deadest to the neighbors. While the tradition as stayed mostly the same throughout time, the foods have changed. Today, for instances they honor the dead with beer, enchiladas and chocolate, in ancient times it would more likely have been dogs and turkeys.

One thing has remained constant, and that is the use of bread. The custom of having a loaf of bread relates to the early custom in Spain of begging for souls. Some believe that the Spanish technology of bread-baking and the identical term used in Spain highly suggests that this tradition was Spanish in introduction. It has been written that the Zapotec Indians (State of Oaxaca) listed, bread for the dead, among their death offerings for the departed souls. It is believed that this ritual dates as early as the colonial period of Mexico

Irish breads include soda bread and brack, a rich, dark loaf containing dried fruit and traditionally served at Halloween

OTHER COUNTRIES’ HOLIDAYS HISTORICALLY RELATED TO HALLOWEEN

The Day of the Dead

All Souls'Day

When: November 2 (November 3rd if the 2and falls on a Sunday)


All Souls’ Day, a holy day established by the Catholic Church in the 10th century ( in 998), is also closely linked to Halloween. All Souls’ Day, on November 2, is observed to help purify the spirits of the dead.The Christian holiday of All Soul's Day pays respect and remembers the souls of all friends and loved ones who have died and gone to heaven. It is a time to pray for their souls that they may be received into heaven. Upon death, it is believed that souls have not yet been cleansed of sin. Praying for souls of loved ones helps to remove the stain of sin, and allow the souls to enter the pearly gates of heaven.

Often people will pray to their lost loved ones and even ask for special favors.

Do you know? All Souls Day is sometimes called the Day of the Dead

All Saints' Day

Halloween falls on the eve of All Saints’ Day, also known as All hallows or Hallowmas, a holy day in the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. Originally a pagan festival of the dead, All Saints’ Day was established by the Catholic Church in the 9th century to honor Christian saints

STORIES

JACK-of-the-TURNIP by Terry H Jones

Excerpt from THE HEADLESS HORSEMAN by Washington Irving

Just at this moment, a step by the side of the bridge caught Ichabod's sensitive ear. In the dark shadow of the grove, beside the brook, he beheld something huge, mis¬shapen, black, and towering. It stirred not, but seemed gathered up into the gloom, like some gigantic monster ready to spring upon the traveler. The hair of the terrified teacher stood on end. What was to be done? It was now too late to turn and fly; what chance was there of escaping ghost or goblin, if such it was, which could ride, upon the wings of the wind? Summoning up, therefore, a show of cour¬age, Ichabod demanded in stammering accents, "Who are you?" He received no reply. He repeated his demand in a still more terrified voice. Still there was no answer. Once more, he beat the sides of unmovable Gunpowder and, shutting his eyes, began to sing a hymn. Just then the shadowy thing began to move and with a scramble and a bound stood at once in the middle of the road. Though the night was dark and dismal, Ichabod could now partly make out the form of the thing. It ap- peared to be a horseman of large dimensions, mounted on a black horse of powerful frame. It made no attempt either to harm Ichabod or to be friendly, but kept to one side of the road, jogging along on the blind side of old Gunpowder, who had now gotten over his fright and waywardness. Ichabod, who had no relish for this strange midnight companion (and began to think of the adventure of Bror Bones with the headless horseman), now quickened ho steed in hopes of leaving him behind. The stranger, how ever, quickened his horse to an equal pace. Ichabod pulled up and fell into a walk, thinking to lag behind; the other did the same. The teacher's heart sank. He tried to resume his hymn tune, but his dry tongue stuck to the roof of his mouth, and he could not utter a line. There was something in the moody and dogged si¬lence of his companion that was both mystererious and appalling; and Ichabod soon discovered why. On mounting a rising ground, which brought the figure of his fellow traveler in relief against the sky, gigantic in height and muffled in a cloak, Ichabod was horror-struck to see that he was headless! But this horror grew when he saw that the head, which should have rested on his shoulders, was carried before him on the saddle. His terror rose to desperation; he rained a shower of kicks and blows upon Gunpowder, hoping to give his companion the slip, but the ghost started full jump with him. Away, then, they dashed through thick and thin, stones flying, and sparks flashing at every bound. Ichabod's flimsy garments fluttered in the air as he stretched his long lanky body way over his horse's head in the eager¬ness of his flight. They had now reached the road that turns off to Sleepy Hollow; but Gunpowder, who seemed possessed with a demon, instead of staying on it made an opposite turn and plunged headlong downhill to the left. This road leads through a sandy hollow haded by trees for about a quarter of a mile, where it crosses the bridge famous in goblin story; and just beyond swells the green knoll on which stands tile whitewashed church. As yet the panic ot the horse had given Ichabod a small advantage in the chase; but just as he had go halfway through the hollow, the girths of the saddle gave way, and he felt it slipping from under him. He seized it by the pommel and tried to hold it firm, but it was no use. He had just time to save himself by clasping old Gunpowder round the neck before the saddle fell to the earth, and he heard it trampled underfoot by the ghostly horseman. For a momen the terror of Hans Van Ripper's fury passed across his mind, for it was Van Ripper's Sunday saddle. But this was no time for pretty fears; the goblin was al¬most on his haunches, and, unskilled rider that he was, it was all he could do to keep his seat. Some times he slipped to one side, sometimes to the other and sometimes he was jolted on the high ridge of his horse's backbone so hard that he truly feared he would be cloven in half. An opening in the trees now cheered him with the hope that the church bridge was at hand, the wavering reflection of a silver star in the brook told him that he was not mistaken. He saw the walls of the church dimly glaring under the trees beyond. He rec¬ollected the place where Brom Bones had seen the headless horseman disappear. "If I can but reach that bridge," thought Ichabod, "I am safe." Just then he heard the black steed panting and blowing close behind him. He even fancied that he felt his hot breath. Another mighty kick in the ribs, and old Gunpowder sprang upon the bridge, he thundered over the resounding planks; he gained the opposite side; and now Ichabod cast a look behind to see if the horseman should vanish, according to Brom's story, in a flash of fire and brim¬stone. Just then he saw the goblin rising in his stirrups and in the very act of hurling his head at him. Ichabod tried to dodge the horrible thing, but too late. The ghost's head met his own with a tremendous crash. He was thrown headlong into the dust, and Gunpowder, the black steed, and the goblin rider passed like a whirlwind. The next morning, the old horse was found, without his saddle and with the bridle under his feet, soberly crop¬ping the grass at his master's gate. Ichabod did not make his appearance at breakfast; dinner hour came, but no Ichabod. The boys assembled at the schoolhouse and strolled idly about the banks of the brook, but no school¬master. Has Van Ripper now began to feel some uneasiness about the fate of poor Ichabod and his own saddle. The neighbors began to look for Ichabod, and at last they came upon his traces. In one part of the road leading to the church was found the saddle, trampled in the dirt. The tracks of horse's hoofs, deeply dented in the road and evidently at furious speed, were traced to the bridge, beyond which on the bank of a broad part of the brook where the water ran deep and black, was found the hat of unfortunate Ichabod. Close behind it was a shattered pumpkin. The brook was searched, but the body of the schoolmaster was not discovered.

POEMS

SONGS

"In the Grave Yard"

(sung to the tune of "oh my darling")

In the grave yard,

In the grave yard,

When the moon begins to shine,

There's a doctor, crazy doctor,

and his monster Frankenstein.


Oh, my monster,

oh, my monster,

oh, my monster Frankenstein,

you are very, very scary, don't

come

near me Frankenstein.


"Three Black Cats"

(tune of Three Blind Mice)

Three black cats, three black cats,

In black hats, in black hats,

They all jumped into the Halloween brew.

They teased the ghosts & the goblins too!

Have you ever seen such a Hullabaloo??

On Halloween, On Halloween!

HALLOWEEN ON PARADE ( SONG)

by Greg Scelsa

You can be something silly

Like a funny ol' circus clown;

Or you can be something from a storybook,

Like a king or queen with a crown.

You can be a super hero

Like the kind in a comic book;

Or you can be something a little bit scary,

But a little bit friendly too.

BRIDGE:

You can get dressed up

In costumes and makeup;

You know that it's only pretend.

And march all around

To the happy sounds,

The fun will never end.

CHORUS:

Halloween's on parade,

Halloween's on parade.

You can be anything you wanna be

When Halloween's on parade.

(REPEAT CHORUS)

You can be something goofy

Like an old time movie star,

A doctor, a nurse or a fire chief,

A driver in a racing car.

You can be a crazy creature

From way out in outer space,

Or a character from a cartoon show

With a smile upon your face.

(REPEAT BRIDGE AND CHORUS)

JOKES

Why won't anyone kiss Dracula? He has bat breath!


Why is it safe to tell a mummy your secret? It'll keep it under wraps!


What do you call a friendly mummy? Chummy!


What did Frankenstein say when he was struck my lightning? "Gee, that felt good!"


What did Frankenstein say to his sweetheart? "It was love at first fright!"


How does a werewolf sign his letters? Best vicious!


What should you do if a werewolf climbs in your window? Run out the door!


What can you find between Godzilla's toes? Slow runners!


Why wouldn't the ghost cross the road? He had no guts!


What did Godzilla have at the "All You Can Eat" restaurant? The waiters!


What kind of monster loves to disco? The boogieman!


What do you say to a monster with two heads? Hello, and hello to you too!


Where does a baby ghost go while its parents are at work? Dayscare!


How do you get to the monster's house? Walk down the street, then turn fright at the dead end.


What kind of dog does Dracula have? A bloodhound!

MOVIES

Carpenter, John Howard (1948– ), American director of horror and science-fiction films. His films include the low-budget thriller Halloween (1978) and others. Halloween (motion picture), horror film about a killer on the loose in a small Illinois town. Released in 1978 and directed by John Carpenter, this film was a box-office hit and inspired the so-called slasher genre of films, in which teenagers are murdered in various ways by an unstoppable killer. Michael Myers murders his teenage sister on Halloween night as a boy and is sent to a psychiatric ward. He escapes 15 years later as an adult and returns to the town to kill many more teenagers. A psychiatrist pursues him, but the shadowy killer is extremely difficult to stop. The formula for producing films of this type begins with the serial murder of teenagers by a ruthless psychotic and adds gratuitous sex and violence, with realistic gore provided by state-of-the-art makeup and special-effects artists. Carpenter composes his own film scores, adding to the atmosphere of menace that often haunts his movies Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation.

MARILYN MANSON :: This Is Halloween http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jU6iP0WLsU8

HALLOWEEN MEMORIES

Lj-user.gifmargo89

‘A-UNION’S’ HALLOWEEN CELEBRATION

Our video can be found on the YouTube.com

RECIPES

WITCHES' FINGERS

..Ingredients : . 1 cup butter, softened 1 cup icing sugar 1 egg 1 tsp almond extract 1 tsp vanilla 2 3/4 cups all purpose flour 1 tsp baking powder 1 tsp salt 3/4 cup whole blanched almonds 1 tube red decorator gel Preparation : In bowl beat together butter, sugar, egg, almond extract and vanilla; beat in flour; baking powder and salt. Cover and refrigerate for 30 minutes. Working with one-quarter of the dough at a time and keeping remaining dough refrigerated, roll heaping teaspoons full of dough into finger shape for each cookie. Press almond firmly into one end for nail. Squeeze in center to create knuckle shape. Using a paring knife make slashes in several places to form knuckle. Place on lightly greased cookie sheet in 325 degree over for 20-25 minutes or until pale or golden. Let cool for three minutes. Lift up almond; squeeze red decorator gel onto nail bed and press almond back in place so gel oozes out from underneath. Remove from cookie sheet and let cool. Repeat with remaining dough. Makes about 5 doz fingers!


NIGHT CRAWLERS

.Ingredients : .12 large apples 1 8-ounce jar boysenberry jam 4 tablespoons butter 12 gummy worms Preparation : Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Core apples from the stem end to 1/2 inch from the bottom. Do not push through. Stuff each hole with 1 teaspoon each jam and butter. Place in a pan and bake uncovered for 35 to 45 minutes, depending on the size of the apples. When done, the apple should be tender but not mushy. Remove the apples from the oven. Let cool 15 minutes. Now set each apple in a bowl and spoon syrup from the baking pan around it. In top of each apple, insert a gummy worm with at least half of its body protruding. Makes 12


VAMPIRE PUNCH

Ingredients : 8 cups cranberry juice 6 cups sparkling apple cider 6 orange slices Preparation : Put all ingredients in a punch bowl. Add ice cubes just before serving. Makes 14 cups


BLOODY DEVIL DOGS Ingredients : Hot Dogs Hot Dog Rolls Ketchup Preparation : Cook hot dogs as you would normally, on the stove or grill. Take the buns and, with CLEAN scissors or a knife, cut out little triangle on the top part facing out. When done, the bun will look like a mouth with the upper teeth showing. Place hot dogs inside the bun, then put on ketchup.


SUGAR COOKIE PUMPKINS

Ingredients : 1 cup butter or margarine, softened 1 cup sugar 3 eggs 1 teaspoon vanilla 3 cups all-purpose flour 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 teaspoon baking powder 1 cookie decorator (in a 4 1/2 -ounce pressurized can) Preparation : In a large bowl with an electric mixer, blend together the butter and sugar. Add the eggs, vanilla, and 1 cup flour and mix well. By hand, fold the remaining flour, the baking soda, and the baking powder. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours. Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Lightly grease a large baking sheet. On a lightly floured board, roll out the dough until it is 1/8 inch thick. Cut out the cookies with a pumpkin shaped cookie cutter and place them on the baking sheet. Bake for 8 to 10 minutes, until lightly browned. Remove from the oven and let cool thoroughly before decorating. Makes 2 to 3 dozen cookies


PUMPKIN BREAD

Ingredients : 1/3 cup vegetable oil 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves 1 cup fresh or canned pumpkin puree 3 eggs 1 cup sugar 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon 1/2 cup raisins 2 1/3 cups Bisquick Pinch of ground nutmeg (optional) Preparation : Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Grease a 9- by 5-inch loaf pan. In a large bowl, mix all the ingredients together with a wooden spoon. Pour the mixture into the prepared pan. Bake for 45 minutes. Test with a knife-if the knife comes out clean, the bread is ready. If not, put back in the oven for another 5-10 minutes. Cool before removing from the pan. Keep in a plastic bag, in a cover dish in a cool location or in the refrigerator. When you are ready to serve, cut into slices, then cut out slices with a pumpkin-shaped cookie cutter and spread with cream cheese or jam. Serves 12 to 18


CHOCO LANTERNS

Ingredients : 12 miniature pumpkins 1 cup sugar 2/3 cup cocoa powder 4 tablespoons cornstarch 1/4 teaspoon salt 5 cups milk 1 teaspoon vanilla Preparation : Cut the tops off the pumpkins and remove most of the interior with a sharp knife. Then scoop to even out the inside. In a bowl, mix together the sugar, cocoa, cornstarch, and salt. Add the milk gradually as you mix with a wooden spoon. Pour into a saucepan and cook over medium heat, stirring constantly, until the pudding thickens. Now add the vanilla and mix again. Remove from the heat and pour into the hallowed-out pumpkins. Chill until ready to serve. Makes 12


GINGERBREAD GHOSTS

Ingredients : 1/2 cup sugar 1/2 cup butter or margarine, softened 1/3 cup molasses 2 1/2 cups sifted all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons ground ginger 3/4 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon Pinch of salt Preparation : In a large bowl, blend together the sugar and butter. Add the molasses. Fold in the sifted flour, ginger, baking soda, cinnamon, and salt. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Lightly grease a large bakingf sheet. On a lightly floured board, roll out the dough until it is 1/8 inch thick. Cut out the cookie with a ghost-shaped cookie cutter and place on the baking sheet. Bake for 6 to 8 minutes, until lightly browned. Remove form the oven and let cool throughly on a wire rack before decorating with Frosting.


QUESADILLAS Ingredients : 5 jalapeno peppers, chopped 1 pound jack cheese, grated 1 cup chopped parsley 16 tortillas Preparation : Combine the peppers, cheese, and parsley. Place a portion of the mixture in the middle of a flat tortilla. Fold over and press the edges together. Spray a large skillet with vegetable spray and fry the tortillas over medium heat, or toast in a toaster oven. The quesadilla is ready when the cheese has melted. Keep warm until ready to serve or reheat in toaster oven for 5 minutes. Do not reheat in the microwave. You may want to make some without the peppers for those who don't like them hot. Makes 16


PUMPKIN ICE CREAM Ingredients : 1 can pumpkin pie filling 1 cup heavy cream 1 1/4 cups simple syrup (1 part water to 1 part sugar) 1/4 teaspoon ground cloves 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger 1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon Preparation : In a bowl, mix together all of the ingredients. Pour the mixture into an electric ice-cream maker. Freeze for 20 minutes, or follow the instructions for your ice cream machine. Makes 1 quart (4 cups)

RESOURCES

For our Project we've used:

Кэрролл К., Новикова М.Л. Holidays Go Round and Round. American Holidays: Traditions, Poems, Songs: уч. Пособие для изучающих английский язык.- СПб.: “Химера”, 1998.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation

Encyclopedia Britannica © 1994-1999

"Jack-O-Lanterns" Photo by Jphn Dommers. Researches, Inc.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2003. © 1993-2002

"Wicker Man" Picture by Hulton Getty/ Tony Stone Images. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2003. © 1993-2002


Related Internet Links:

The origins of Halloween

The Virtual Haunted House:

Booville:

Halloween: Facts and Misinformation:

A picture story:

A crossword:

A word search:

A bookmark:

Carving a pumpkin:

Masks:


Research work done by the first-year "A-Union" Russian students of the faculty of Foreign Languages:

Yana Bondarenko, Olga Ivahnenko , Kate Faustova , Ann Kucheryavskaya, Ann Onishchenkо , Julia Bulanova , Yana Volkova , Kate Ivanova , Kate Yanenko , Kate Vinnichenko , Rita Bondareva , Ludmila Plieva

Inspired by Irina Pogrebnaya, Associate Professor at Rostov Teacher Training Institute

April 2007. Rostov-on-Don Teacher Training Institute of Southern Federal University (Russia) The topic was chosen by these students.

Our ACKNOWLEGEMENT to Julia and Gerald Raybould-Rogers and their students.

Персональные инструменты
Инструменты
Акция час кода 2018

организаторы проекта