Perm state art gallery
Walking down the Perm streets, we often pay attention to ancient buildings. One of such ancient constructions - the Perm state art gallery. The Perm state art gallery ([http: // www.gallery.permonline.ru ПГХГ]) – one of large museums in the Ural region. Collections of gallery total about 43.000 units of storage and include products of domestic, West-European art of various art schools, styles and directions XV-ХХ of centuries. Here painting, the schedule, a sculpture, arts and crafts and a folk art of Russia and the Europe. In gallery collections of antique ceramics, art of Ancient Egypt, the Tibetan bronze, an applied art of Japan, India, China are collected. The Perm art gallery has been opened in 1922 Nowadays located in a building of the Spaso-Preobraghenskyi cathedral, being by a monument of architecture of XIX century. The belltower of the Spaso-Preobraghenskyi cathedral was under construction eight years and only in 1831 on it have lifted ancient bells of Piskorskiy monastery. Many events of history were announced with bells of the Spaso-Preobrazhenskiy cathedral. During Soviet time the Perm cathedral has comprehended sad destiny of the Russian churches. The building of Spaso-Preobraghenskyi cathedral amazes with the architecture which is really grandiose and represents a huge historical value. The building of a cathedral has been incorporated in 1798. For construction the brick and iron from disassembled constructions Piskorsko - Lasvinskii monastery which by then has fallen into decay were used. From the same monastery has been brought unique carved (from a tree) an iconostasis executed by serf masters in XVIII century. In 1818 construction of a summer part of a cathedral, and year later and winter one has been ended. Both parts of a cathedral have been connected among themselves and made a single whole. On the project of a belltower competition has been declared. Provincial architect P.T.Vasilev and known architect Luigi Ruska took part in it. From economic reasons local authorities have preferred P.T.Vasileva's project. But at erection of a belltower defects of the project have come to light: within the precincts of the first circle there were cracks. As a result the project of a belltower should be altered. The final variant was executed by architect I.I.Sviyazev. Separately standing 67 - meter belltower has started to be constructed in 1818, it was under construction 14 years artels of the masons consisting of serfs. In 1892-1893 architect A.B.Turchevich has lead one more reconstruction of a building. From southern and northern parties of transitive gallery (between a cathedral and a belltower) two are done and crown central boards with bulbous endings. Expansion of a cathedral temple has been connected with urban population which has quickly increased second half XIX centuries. In 1853-1854 provincial architect G.P.Letuchii had been made the project of reconstruction of a cathedral which included following works: separately costing belltower and a cathedral incorporate covered ground gallery; the belltower from the southern party receives one more gallery connecting it with archierian by the house. These changes considered already developed earlier planning structure, thus allowed to achieve greater unity of architectural forms, having approached ensemble to style of Russian classicism of the beginning of XIX century. As a result of reconstruction of cathedral Stefanievskiy the temple has been increased. Has undergone changes and a temple interior. The marble iconostasis was " renewed and is decorated with golden carving , and the arches and walls in decent places are decorated by picturesque images sacred ". Belltower have connected to a cathedral and archierian by the house (nowadays a study of local lore museum) covered galleries, at an altar of a summer part of a cathedral. But the reconstruction planned under the plan, has not been finished: the belltower has not received an additional circle, the form of a roof of the summer part of a cathedral has remained without changes. In 1895 in a northeast part of an architectural complex two two-storeyed houses for "братствующих" have been built. They also entered into the general ensemble of a cathedral. Constructed in the beginning of XIX century and only slightly expanded in 1853-1854 by the end of century it any more did not answer the purpose as the main city cathedral. After stone extensions to winter Stefanievskyi to a temple have been made, its useful area has considerably increased. In 1895 in a northeast part of an architectural complex two two-storeyed houses for "neighbouring" have been built. They also entered into the general ensemble of a cathedral. The length of warm building has made 19 sazhen, width in east part 6,5 sazhen, in western 11 sazhen, height 4,5 sazhen. In all width of the western wall of a temple choruses have been arranged. The church porch which is being earlier in transitive gallery, is transferred was under a belltower (length 5 sazhen, width 2,4 sazhen). After the expansion made in these years the cathedral became five-pieced. " In the summer temple in the name of God’s Transformation, in winter - in the name of over Stefan Perm. Behind the right choir - in the name of the Cover saint the Virgin. In the additional building to a warm temple there were two sides: from the right party - in honour of a cathedral over John Predtechi...; with left - in the name of prelate Dimitriya Rostov Chydotvortsa. " In new buildings iconostasises, small, two-story, with identical number of icons in everyone have been established. Iconostasises were резаны from fur-tree and lime trees and are gilt. " In the building in the name of the prophet and the Forerunner Gospodnya John the iconostasis from a fur-tree and lime tree in two circles, is gilt, decorated with carving. In the first circle of icons - six:... The Savior, Divine mother and Господня Forerunners in silvergolden copes. In the second circle of icons six and the smaller size - two. All icons were drawn on a tree. On imperial gates icons were wooden - six. In the building Prelate Dimitriya the iconostasis was the same, as well as previous, also is located in it as much icons and the same size... " Iconostasises, obviously, have been executed in special iconostasis institute of Perm, opened in second half XIX centuries by Alexey Nikolaevichem Mamayev. Inside of northern both southern walls of the buildings and the arches have been painted by an oil paint. The greater subject compositions similar to a list of the summer Spaso-Preobrazhenskiy cathedral, here was not. On the arches, columns and in piers between windows images separate sacred have been given. Walls and arch Stefanievskiy temple " have been decorated by picturesque images of different events from sacred and church history, saints, and also ornaments ". For June, 1899 of a wall of a church porch undersign stages from a life over Stefan Perm. In 1901 A.B.Turchevicha's building-technical bureau comes back to the reconstruction of a cathedral begun in 1892. Following works have been lead to these years: the left wing of a belltower (a premise of a vestry) is increased, on length it became equally right transitive gallery leading in the archierian house. Both of a wing have received identical one-storeyed window partitioning. Two porches which are being from the front part of the archierian home, have been cleaned, and the input is transferred to an angular part. The subsequent reconstruction of a building concerned only to an internal part of the premise which adapted for museum business. In 1931, after transfer of a building of a cathedral to the Perm art gallery, architect N.A.Shvarevym had been executed the project of reconstruction of an interior. The Bazilical plan of a cathedral has allowed to pass to the decision of space due to installation longitudinal and cross-section (partially) partitions. On May, 9th, 1946 the spike of a belltower has burned down from hit in it of a lighting rocket during celebratory salute. In 1946 - 1947 have restored a spike, but have reduced in sizes. In 1957-1958 the summer part of a cathedral has received three-tier division (the project of architect D.YA.mine). The same years in a building kinds of an internal accomplishment are executed all. The facade of a building has received painting traditional for classicism. From the most opening the gallery became the center of an art life of edge. With 1925 here began to pass exhibitions of products of modern artists of Urals Mountains, a prototype of the future regional Ural exhibitions. In 1929 has been opened the department of the modern art which has begun acquisition of products of domestic art of XX century first in the country. The art gallery as a result of the many-sided activity plays a role of public institute in system of culture which keeps, studies, propagandizes the collections, actively promotes integration of regional art culture into national and all-European cultural processes. Today one of the basic directions of activity of gallery — modernization of all spheres of museum work (registration-keepers’, scientifically-educational, exhibition, educational, library activity, work with visitors) in connection with application of new information technologies. Since 1990th foreign communications of gallery were strengthened. As a result — exhibitions of products modern European (English, German) and the American artists, joint scientifically-practical conferences. In 2000 the Perm art gallery took part in exhibition ЭКСПО-2000 in Hanover. Exchange exhibitions with museums of Moscow, St. Petersburg etc. cities of Russia are constantly carried out. In 1999 in ГМИИ it (Moscow) has passed Pushkin an exhibition « Се the person » where together with a German cult wooden sculpture the Perm cult wooden sculpture has been shown. In October, 2000 in Tretiakov gallery (Moscow) has passed an exhibition representing assemblies of the Perm art gallery - « Treasures of the Perm Region». Alongside with acquisition and educational work, in 1970-1990-е in scientifically-educational activity of gallery one of the basic places borrow the culturological projects including exhibitions, the art-interiors, scientifically-practical conferences, educational programs which have got wide popularity and have involved leading experts and known scientists not only Perm, but also other regions of Russia. Collections of reports of conferences, catalogues of exhibitions and collections are periodically published.
Russian version Пермская государственная художественная галерея