- An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight. It is all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment
- ”Biology Concepts & Connections Sixth Edition”, Campbell, Neil A. (2009), page 2, 3 and G-9. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
- "Any unit that includes all of the organisms (ie: the "community") in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure, biotic diversity, and material cycles (i.e.: exchange of materials between living and nonliving parts) within the system is an ecosystem."
- Eugene Odum, a founder of ecology - Odum, EP (1971) Fundamentals of ecology, third edition, Saunders New York
An ecosystem consisting of the living agents (community) and the non living components (environment).
- Reusable objects
- Reusable knowledge
- The idea of a knowledge ecosystem is an approach to knowledge management which claims to foster the dynamic evolution of knowledge interactions between entities to improve decision-making and innovation through improved evolutionary networks of collaboration.
- Like natural ecosystems, these knowledge ecosystems have inputs, throughputs and outputs operating in open exchange relationship with their environments. Multiple layers and levels of systems may be integrated to form a complete ecosystem. These systems consist of interlinked knowledge resources, databases, human experts, and artificial knowledge agents that collectively provide an online knowledge for anywhere anytime performance of organizational tasks
- A Digital ecosystem is any distributed adaptive open socio-technical system, with properties of self-organisation, scalability and sustainability, inspired by natural ecosystems.
Digital ecosystems is an emerging research field, and so with healthy variations in its definition
Метафора сообщества создателей программного обеспечения как экологической системы
- David G. Messerschmitt and Clemens Szyperski (2003). Software Ecosystem: Understanding an Indispensable Technology and Industry. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. ISBN 0262134322.
- Free Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman - http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Ecosystem
- Digital ecosystem http://www.digital-ecosystems.org/events/2005.05/de_position_paper_vf.pdf