For example, the Present Perfect is usually used to discuss visited locations, because experiences in different locations continue to affect us now, and can be added to, such as “I have been to France.”
The Present Perfect can be used to highlight something done in the past when we expect to do it again. In this use, an individual action may be considered complete, but the action is expected to continue (even if it is the first occasion of the action).
The present perfect should be chosen instead of the past simple when the action either has a current or ongoing effect, or can still be added to. Otherwise, the past simple should be used for complete actions.
- She escaped from prison. (A single complete action.)
- She has escaped from prison and is running away. (A complete past event that informs us of where she is now.)
Existing Constructionist educational literature has focused primarily on hard sciences subjects.