Logo in Russia

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Logo in Russia

General situation

Andrei Ershov and the Soviet Information Age

Mass computer literacy campaign was pushed by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985. Andrei Ershov, a 53-year-old academician and computer programmer, took command of the project from the very beginning. He was already known throughout the programming community on both sides of the Iron Curtain for his visionary views on the transformative power of mass computing, and he had risen to prominence in the Academy of Sciences partly as a result of his international network of contacts. Already in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Ershov had begun to draw attention to the need to train an increasing number of programmers if officially declared plans to cyberneticize the economy and close the systems gap were ever to succeed. If the coming age was to be dominated by algorithmic machines, programmers, because of their mastery of algorithmic thinking, would come to occupy a uniquely central place in society. Ershov developed this idea most fully in a keynote titled “Aesthetics and the Human Factor in Programing,” As he concluded his speech, Ershov referenced the educational ideas of Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert. Papert opposed the traditional model of computer-aided instruction, in which “the computer programs the child,” to one in which “the child programs the computer.” Children, in Papert’s view, were to be given the opportunity to experiment independently with simple programming languages like LOGO. In 1979, Ershov published a pamphlet on “school informatics” with the concrete actions and structures that needed to be put in place to informatize the Soviet educational system.They included the development of an appropriate educational computer language along the lines of LOGO, as well as databases and hardware.

Logo Group of the Institute of New Technologies of Education (INT)

Informatics for primary education: recommendations. 2000.

LogoWriter and Exchange of programs

Logo Telecommunications Network
Logo telecommunications and LogoNet are the terms used to describe the ability to communicate between groups of students and teachers at various locations on the Internet via both a LogoExpress and LogoNet software interface. Logowriter text, graphics, and digital video still images, formatted as Logowriter files, are exchanged between participants on the network.

Therefore the students in Pereslav-Zalessky were able to "talk" with students in Omsk and share stories, graphics, and pictures with one another.


  • Kumir - Russian-based programming language similar to Pascal and IDE, mainly intended for educational usage in schools.
  • Rapira – A Russian-based interpreted procedural programming language with strong dynamic type system.
    • Rapira (Russian: Рапира, rapier) is an educational procedural programming language developed in the Soviet Union and implemented on Agat computer, PDP-11 clones (Electronika, DVK, BK series) and Intel-8080/Z80 clones (Korvet). It was an interpreted language with dynamic type system and high level constructions. The language originally had a Russian-based set of keywords, but English and Moldovan were added later. Also, it was more elegant and easier to use than existing Pascal implementations of the time.
  • Robik – A simple Russian-based programming language for teaching basics of programming to children.

Logo in Bulgaria

In the early 80s, while visiting School 119 in Sofia a Russian educator and social philosopher Simon Soloveychik asked Evgenya Sendova to describe the RGE experiment in one sentence without using the word computer. She said: Our children love going to school. The immediate answer was: Thank you, this is absolutely sufficient.

Another great Russian educator and psychologist (Vasily Davydov) visited an RGE school in the town of Blagoevgrad, a day earlier than announced. When entering the school he smiled and said: I know that you would show the best you have to a guest, but I want a realistic picture. The teacher looked at me slightly surprised but I encouraged her to carry out her plan for the day – the lesson was exploring procedures for drawing spirals with parameters (for the angle of the turtle turn and the size of the initial segment). The self-similarity of the construction naturally led the 5th graders to writing a recursive procedure. By experimenting with various values for the ANGLE parameter the students found interesting patterns, they were able to create spirals with the shape of regular polygons and with a specific number of branches switching left or right. They modified the procedure by first introducing a parameter for the increment of SIZE and then by changing the rule of augmenting it (SIZE*2). Then the students decided to check what would happen if they fixed the SIZE and increased the ANGLE. The latter idea was born with the help of the teacher who was thus preparing the ground for experiments in science with processes depending on several parameters. Prof. Davydov was genuinely surprised admitting that he would suspect a preliminary setting hadn’t he changed the date of his visit. Little did he know that such a creative atmosphere was typical for the Language and Mathematics classes.

Персональные инструменты
Акция час кода 2018

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