ЕГЭ/Английский язык/Past Simple
I wrote a letter to my grandfather yesterday.
Мы используем past simple, чтобы рассказать о событиях или ситуациях в прошлом.
- Mr. Gosselyn read The Times, went to church on Sunday and accompanied his wife to tea-parties.
- She won every prize that was open to her.
- It was two years later that Jimmie Langton discovered her.
- He blushed and his blue eyes shone.
- Her aunt talked in a deep loud voice.
Очень часто мы употребляем past simple tense с такими словами и фразами как: yesterday,
last night, last week, last month
last year, last summer (autumn, winter, spring)
at six (seven...) o'clock on Sunday(Monday...)
an hour(a week...) ago, the other day
in 1994(1966), during the war(the revolution..)
- Mr. Smith began teaching in a secondary school in England in 1988.
- On Monday he came to the office by taxi.
- I went to Ireland in a fishing boat two years ago.
- Last month Tom and Jim visited Scotland and climbed the mountains.
Многие глаголы в past simple оканчиваются на -ed или -е.
- She walked round the garden with the colonel and listened intellegently while he talked of peace.
- Her beauty created a sensation in Middlepool.
- He stayed in Middlepool for two years.
- She looked straight into his eyes.
- Julia smiled at the complacency on her husband's handsome face.
- Michael stared at them gravely.
Если правильный глагол оканчивается на -е, то мы присоединяем -d для образования past simple.
smoke /smoked hope/hoped dance/danced confuse/confused
Во всех остальных случаях правильные глаголы образовывают past simple посредством окончания -ed.
Но многие важные глаголы неправильные. Это значит, что они образовывают past simple не с помощью -ed или -е.
Это такие глаголы, в которых ...
- ... изменяется гласная в корне слова:
tell - told - Mrs. Gosselyn told her about India.
give - gave - He gave a little laugh of embarrasment.
take - took - She took him into a small room behind the dining-room.
fly - flew - The children flew to meet their mother.
see - saw - I last saw Jill over three years ago.
- ... изменяется гласная в корне и добавляется -d или -t:
teach - taught - Her aunt taught her how to walk and how to hold herself.
leave - left He left the room an hour ago.
sell - sold - The baker sold good cakes.
bring - brought - John brought his little brother to school.
buy - bought - They bought that fruit from Greece.
catch - caught - Mr. Brown caught the eight o'clock train.
- ... изменяется конечная -t на -d:
send - sent - He sent a letter to his aunt yesterday..
build - built - Jack built his house last autumn..
bend - bent - That stormy night trees bent before the wind.
lend - lent - The other day Dolly lent them money.
- ... одинаковая форма infinitive и past simple:
cut - cut - Aunt Aggie cut the cake.
hit - hit - The cruel driver hit the horse.
put - put - Yesterday the worshippers put their gifts before the gods.
set - set - The sailors, after quarreling with their captain, set him adrift on the ocean in an open boat.
split - split - The ship split in two under the force of the stormy waves.
burst - burst - Dolly burst into laughter.
let - let - The prisoner let himself down from his window with a rope made of knotted sheets.
- ... разная грамматическая основа:
go - went - Ann went up to the drawing-room.
Но некоторые глаголы могут быть как правильными, так и неправильными.
burn - burnt или burned
The old house burnt down last night in the big fire. или The old house burned down last night in the big fire.
dream - dreamt или dreamed
I dreamt of my old home last night. или I dreamed of my old home last night.
Следующие глаголы могут быть как правильными, так и неправильными:
burn burnt или burned
dream dreamt или dreamed
lean leant или leaned
learn learnt или learned
smell smelt или smelled
spell spelt или spelled
spill spilt или spilled
spoil spoilt или spoiled
Формой past simple от глагола be (am/is/are)является was/were:
Julia was quick-witted. She was a born actress. Michael's eyes were heavy with tears.
В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях с past simple мы используем did/didn't + инфинитив (do/open/rain и т.д.):
- Did they like the idea of his going on the stage?
They didn't like the idea of his going on the stage.
- Did Tom dance with Helen yesterday?
No, Tom didn't dance with Helen yesterday.
- She knew that she didn't look well in costume.
Запомните, что обычно используются did/didn't с have:
- Did you have a bath this morning?
- We didn't have any more flowers in the garden.
Но с глаголом be (was/were) мы не употребляем did:
- Was he at home yesterday?
- He was not exactly mean, but he was not generous.